Katharina Endriati Sukamto, Bambang Kaswanti Purwo


This qualitative preliminary study focuses on the linguistic proficiency of Javanese-Indonesian bilingual elementary school children in a village in Gunung Kidul, 65 km south of Yogyakarta in the island of Java, Indonesia, in producing oral narrative and descriptive stories in Javanese and Indonesian. Two kinds of instruments were used to elicit data in this study: a six-minute silent movie and a picture about some activities to commemorate the Indonesian Independence Day. The elicited data from the movie instrument shows that both the lower-grade and higher-grade students were more at ease with Javanese than with Indonesian. From the picture-triggered speech, the result is that the higher-grade students superseded the lower-grade students in their fluency in Indonesian as well as in their ability to construct longer utterances in the language. This study demonstrates that the children’s proficiency in Javanese – their first language – remains at the basic level and it does not develop even though the children are in the higher grade. However, all children are more comfortable with Javanese when they have to do retelling. When the children were given a task that is related to academic requirements, such as describing something that is based on a picture, the higher-grade children perform better in Indonesian rather than in Javanese.


narrative, descriptive, bilingual

Full Text:



Arias, R. & Lakshmanan, U. (2005). Code switching in a Spanish-English bilingual child: A communication resource. ISB4: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Bilingualism, ed. James Cohen, Kara T. McAlister, Kellie Rolstad, and Jeff MacSwan, 94-109. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.

Bernstein, B. (2003). Class, codes and control: Theoretical studies towards a sociology of language, Volume I. London: Routledge.

Bialystok, E., Peets, K.F., Moreno, S. (2014). Producing bilinguals through immersion education: Development of metalinguistic awareness. Appl. Psycholinguist. Jan 1; 35(1):177-191.

Cantone, K.F. (2005). Evidence against a third grammar: code switching in Italian-German bilingual children. ISB4: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Bilingualism, ed. James Cohen, Kara T. McAlister, Kellie Rolstad, and Jeff MacSwan, 477-496. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.

Chafe, W.L. (Ed.). (1985). The Pear Stories. Cognitive, Cultural, and Linguistic Aspects of Narrative Production. Norwood: Ablex Publishing.

Cummins, J. (1981). The role of primary language development in promoting educational success for language minority students. Schooling and language minority students: A theoretical framework, 3-49. Los Angeles: California State University, Evaluation, Dissemination, and Assessment Center.

Cummins, J. (2001). Bilingual children’s mother tongue: Why is it important for education? Sprogforum, 7(19), 15-20.

Cummins, J. (2008). BISC and CALP: Empirical and theoretical status of the distinction. Street, B. & Hornberger, N. H. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Language and Education, 2nd Edition, Volume 2: Literacy. (71-83). New York: Springer Science + Business Media LLC.

Darwis, M. 2011. Nasib bahasa daerah di era globalisasi: Peluang dan tantangan. Workshop Pelestarian Bahasa Daerah Bugis Makassar, Balitbang Agama Makassar, Hotel Pariwisata Parepare, 15 Oktober 2011.

Gunarwan, A. (2006). Kasus-kasus pergeseran bahasa daerah: Akibat persaingan dengan bahasa Indonesia? Linguistik Indonesia, 24(1), 95-113.

Kaswanti Purwo, B. (2012). Program PAUD: Ancaman bagi pemertahanan bahasa ibu? Seminar Bahasa Ibu dan Keberaksaraan dalam rangka memperingati Hari Internasional Bahasa Ibu, 21 Februari 2012, Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya.

Mattock K., Polka, L., Rvachew, S., Krehm, M. (2010). The first steps in word learning are easier when the shoes fit: Comparing monolingual and bilingual infants. Developmental Science, 13, 229-243.

Sandelowski, M. (1991). Telling stories: Narrative approaches in qualitative research. IMAGE: Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 23(3), Fall 1991, 161-166.

Sobarna, C. (2007). Bahasa Sunda sudah di ambang pintu kematiankah? Makara, Sosial Humaniora, 11(1), Juni 2007, 13-17.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26499/li.v34i1.43
View Counter: Abstract Viewed = 20 times PDF | 20 | times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Linguistik Indonesia Indexed By

CrossrefInastiNLA Catalogue              



     Creative Commons License    

 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Linguistik Indonesia
d.a. Pusat Kajian Bahasa dan Budaya
Unika Atma Jaya 
Jl. Jenderal Sudirman No. 51
Jakarta 12930 - Indonesia

View My Stats