The Spatial Construal of TIME in Indonesian: Evidence from Language and Gesture

Gede Primahadi Wijaya Rajeg, Poppy Siahaan, Alice Gaby

Abstract


This paper presents evidence from language and gesture for the spatial conceptualisation of time in Indonesian. Linguistic evidence corroborates the dominant patterns of space-time mapping for deictic (i.e., future, present/now, and past) and sequential times (i.e., before-after). Indonesian speakers talk about the future as an event in front of the Ego, while the past is behind the Ego. The spontaneous gestural data reflect and extend the patterns observed in other languages. Forward and backward (i.e., sagittal) gestures tend to accompany future and past expressions respectively. Deictic times can also be construed through the leftward and rightward (i.e., lateral) gestures and the combination of the sagittal and lateral axes, which lack a linguistic analogue. The sequential-time gesture is more likely to be lateral. Our study contributes to (i) the exploration of universality and variation in the construal of time in language and gesture, and (ii) the growing interest within Cognitive Linguistics in converging and/or diverging evidence from different methods and data types.



Keywords


Indonesian; gestures; time; space; cognitive linguistics

Full Text:

PDF

References


Benoit, K., Watanabe, K., Wang, H., Nulty, P., Obeng, A., Müller, S., & Matsuo, A. (2018). quanteda: An R package for the quantitative analysis of textual data. Journal of Open Source Software, 3(30), 774. https://doi.org/10.21105/joss.00774

Biemann, C., Heyer, G., Quasthoff, U., & Richter, M. (2007). The Leipzig Corpora Collection: Monolingual corpora of standard size. In M. Davies, P. Rayson, S. Hunston, & P. Danielsson (Eds.), Proceedings of the Corpus Linguistics Conference. http://ucrel.lancs.ac.uk/publications/CL2007/paper/190_Paper.pdf

Casasanto, D., Boroditsky, L., Phillips, W., Greene, J., Goswami, S., Bocanegra-Thiel, S., Santiago-Diaz, I., Fotokopoulu, O., Pita, R., & Gil, D. (2004). How deep are effects of language on thought? Time estimation in speakers of English, Indonesian, Greek, and Spanish. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, 26(26). https://escholarship.org/uc/item/9m92g1s5

Casasanto, D., & Jasmin, K. (2012). The hands of time: Temporal gestures in English speakers. Cognitive Linguistics, 23(4), 643–674. https://doi.org/10.1515/cog-2012-0020

Clark, H. H. (1973). Space, time, semantics, and the child. In T. E. Moore (Ed.), Cognitive development and acquisition of language (pp. 27–63). Academic Press.

Cooperrider, K., Núñez, R., & Sweetser, E. (2014). The conceptualization of time in gesture. In C. Müller, A. Cienki, E. Fricke, S. Ladewig, D. McNeill, & J. Bressem (Eds.), Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft / Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science (HSK) 38/2 (pp. 1781–1788). DE GRUYTER. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110302028.1781

de la Fuente, J., Santiago, J., Román, A., Dumitrache, C., & Casasanto, D. (2014). When You Think About It, Your Past Is in Front of You: How Culture Shapes Spatial Conceptions of Time. Psychological Science, 25(9), 1682–1690. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797614534695

Feldman, J. A. (2006). From molecule to metaphor: A neural theory of language. MIT Press.

Geeraerts, D. (2010). Theories of lexical semantics. Oxford University Press.

Gibbs, R. W. (2006). Embodiment and cognitive science. Cambridge University Press.

Goldhahn, D., Eckart, T., & Quasthoff, U. (2012). Building large monolingual dictionaries at the Leipzig Corpora Collection: From 100 to 200 languages. Proceedings of the 8th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference (LREC) 2012, 759–765. http://www.lrec-conf.org/proceedings/lrec2012/pdf/327_Paper.pdf

Johnson, M. (1987). The body in the mind: The bodily basis of meaning, imagination, and reason. University of Chicago Press.

Kövecses, Z. (2010). Metaphor: A practical introduction (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press.

Lakoff, G. (1987). Woman, fire, and dangerous things: What categories reveal about the mind. The University of Chicago Press.

Lakoff, G. (1993). The contemporary theory of metaphor. In A. Ortony (Ed.), Metaphor and thought (2nd ed., pp. 202–251). Cambridge University Press.

Lakoff, G. (2014). Mapping the brain’s metaphor circuitry: Metaphorical thought in everyday reason. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2014.00958

Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors we live by. The University of Chicago Press.

Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1999). Philosophy in the flesh: The embodied mind and its challenge to Western thought. Basic Books.

Li, H. (2017). Time on hands: Deliberate and spontaneous temporal gestures by speakers of Mandarin. Gesture, 16(3), 396–415. https://doi.org/10.1075/gest.00002.li

McNeill, D. (2005). Gesture and thought. University of Chicago Press.

Mittelberg, I. (2007). Methodology for multimodality: One way of working with speech and gesture data. In M. Gonzalez-Marquez, I. Mittelberg, S. Coulson, & M. J. Spivey (Eds.), Methods in cognitive linguistics (pp. 225–248). John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Moore, K. E. (2004). Ego-based and Field-based frames of reference in space to time metaphors. In Michel Achard & Suzanne Kemmer (Eds.), Language, Culture, and Mind (pp. 151–165). CSLI.

Núñez, R., & Cooperrider, K. (2013). The tangle of space and time in human cognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17(5), 220–229. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2013.03.008

Núñez, R., Motz, B. A., & Teuscher, U. (2006). Time after time: The psychological reality of the ego- and time-reference-point distinction in metaphorical construals of time. Metaphor & Symbol, 21(3), 133–146.

Núñez, R., & Sweetser, E. (2006). With the future behind them: Convergent evidence from Aymara language and gesture in the crosslinguistic comparison of spatial construals of time. Cognitive Science, 30, 401–450.

Perdana, M. I. (2019). Winter is coming: A corpus-based approach to spatiotemporal metaphors in English and Indonesian discourse [Poster]. 15th International Cognitive Linguistics Conference (ICLC-15), Nishinomiya, Japan. https://iclc2019.site/wp-content/uploads/abstracts/poster/ICLC-15_paper_410.pdf

Prayogi, I. (2013). Bentuk-bentuk metafora temporal Bahasa Indonesia (Tinjauan Awal). Prosiding seminar internasional studi bahasa dari berbagai perspektif, 776–784.

Quasthoff, U., & Goldhahn, D. (2013). Indonesian corpora (No. 7; Technical Report Series on Corpus Building). Abteilung Automatische Sprachverarbeitung, Institut für Informatik, Universität Leipzig.

R Core Team. (2019). R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. https://www.R-project.org/

Rajeg, G. P. W., Siahaan, P., & Gaby, A. (2021). Data and R codes for analyses on the spatial construal of TIME in Indonesian language and co-speech gestures. Open Science Framework (OSF). https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/FJE6K

Stefanowitsch, A. (2004). HAPPINESS in English and German: A metaphorical-pattern analysis. In Michel Achard & Suzanne Kemmer (Eds.), Language, Culture, and Mind (pp. 137–149). CSLI.

Stefanowitsch, A. (2006). Words and their metaphors: A corpus-based approach. In A. Stefanowitsch & S. Th. Gries (Eds.), Corpus-based approaches to metaphor and metonymy (pp. 63–105). Mouton de Gruyter.

Sullivan, K., & Bui, L. T. (2016). With the future coming up behind them: Evidence that Time approaches from behind in Vietnamese. Cognitive Linguistics, 27(2). https://doi.org/10.1515/cog-2015-0066

Sweetser, E., & Gaby, A. (2017). Linguistic patterns of space and time vocabulary. In B. Dancygier (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of Cognitive Linguistics (pp. 625–634). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316339732.039

Traugott, E. C. (1978). On the expression of spatio-temporal relations in language. In J. H. Greenberg (Ed.), Universals of human language (Vol. 3, pp. 369–400). Stanford University Press.

Walker, E., & Cooperrider, K. (2016). The continuity of metaphor: Evidence from temporal gestures. Cognitive Science, 40(2), 481–495. https://doi.org/10.1111/cogs.12254

Whorf, B. L. (1956). The relation of habitual thought and behavior to language. In J. B. Carroll (Ed.), Language, Thought, and Reality (pp. 134–159). MIT Press.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.26499/li.v40i1.297
View Counter: Abstract Viewed = 247 times PDF | 73 | times

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Linguistik Indonesia Indexed By

CrossrefCrossrefInastiBASENLA CatalogueRoad 

 

@2019

     Creative Commons License   

 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

Linguistik Indonesia
d.a. Pusat Kajian Bahasa dan Budaya
Unika Atma Jaya 
Jl. Jenderal Sudirman No. 51
Jakarta 12930 - Indonesia

View My Stats